Robotic surgery has proven to be highly efficient in operating rooms and has changed the concept of surgical work. Massive and traditional surgeries have transformed into surgeries with minimal surgical intervention. The experienced surgeon is the only one who operates the robot through a surgical control unit, using 3D cameras to provide high-resolution images. The surgeon controls the robot’s four arms to access the surgical area they want to reach. These arms have the highest degree of movement, which is better than the human hand.
The robot and computer can provide an excellent service to the surgeon. After computerized tomography imaging, the location of the tumor can be accurately determined, and the distance of adjacent organs can be measured. Additionally, a 3D image can be formed to assist the doctor during the surgical procedure.
The surgeon directs the robot through the control unit in front of a computer screen in the designated area to move the robot’s arms. It is more accurate to say that the movements that the surgeon wants to perform are translated by the robot and executed on the patient’s body.
The doctor inserts a small robotic arm equipped with a camera connected to a computer screen through a small opening no more than a few centimeters into the patient’s abdomen. This arm navigates through the patient’s intestines as the doctor sees fit based on what they see on the computer screen, magnified tens of times larger.
Robotic bone surgeries
After robots have entered this field through wider doors, bone surgeries are witnessing unprecedented achievements today. Many companies specializing in the medical field have developed surgical robots that help in bone surgeries during knee, hip, shoulder, and spine surgeries and achieve satisfactory results for both the patient and the surgeon.
Joint replacement surgeries with robots have become one of the traditional operations performed worldwide, provided that an experienced surgeon with extensive experience in his field is present. Furthermore, robot-assisted bone surgeries have begun to prove their effectiveness and their significant role in improving the efficiency of spine surgery, which is one of the most precise medical operations, as well as many other surgeries.
The robotic arm enables the surgeon to perform precise operations efficiently, especially spine, joint, and other bone surgeries, which contributes to reducing the suffering of patients, shortening the recovery period after the process, and reducing bleeding among other advantages.
Joint replacement surgeries using robot technology in surgeries for repairing joints and tendons have contributed to achieving many positive results in treating patients with knee joint replacement.
Gynecological surgeries have benefited the most from surgical advancements using robots, as around 90% to 95% of gynecological surgeries can be performed using robots. Some of the most common gynecological surgeries include:
- Myomectomy: This is the most commonly used surgery to treat uterine fibroids. Instead of removing the uterus, the fibroid can be removed, which is what most women want, especially those still of childbearing age. Robotic surgery, in this case, is the optimal solution to get rid of fibroids and preserve a healthy uterus simultaneously.
- Hysterectomy: Today, the uterus can be removed through laparoscopic surgery, which requires no more than 3 to 4 incisions, each no larger than half a centimeter.
- Repair of congenital uterine defects: With this modern technique, the surgeon can reduce a double uterus to a single one without opening the abdomen, which means that the patient can conceive without the risk of abortion associated with most of these cases.
- Repair of uterine prolapse: When the uterus or vagina protrudes, it can be brought back to its natural position, and robotic surgery can easily visualize the areas behind the uterus and at the front of the spinal column without any defects.
- Fallopian tube surgeries: One of the most successful surgeries that can be performed with a laparoscope is the restoration of blocked tubes to their original state.
- Removal of adhesions in the ovaries, tubes, and pelvis: Adhesions in the ovaries and tubes can cause pain in the pelvis and lower abdomen and during menstruation. These adhesions can be easily removed using robots.
- Re-opening tied tubes: Some women choose to link their tubes to prevent pregnancy, and when they want to conceive, they can easily reopen the tubes with the help of a robot.
- Non-uterine pregnancy operations.
- Removal of blood clots and treatment of displaced uterine lining
- Operations for reproductive system cancer.
- Female surgeons can use the robot to remove one or both ovaries and treat advanced-stage ovarian, uterine, and other reproductive system cancers.
One of the surgical procedures that has witnessed significant progress in robotic surgery is prostatectomy, where it is possible to use the robot to remove the prostate affected by cancer and the lymph nodes in the pelvis. Prostatectomy using the robot preserves the nerves surrounding it, responsible for the process of erection with extreme precision, as well as reconnecting the bladder to the urethra after the prostate is removed with extreme accuracy and ease, reducing the surgical complications that occur after performing prostatectomy with open surgery, and also enabling the patient to regain control over urination quickly after this type of robotic surgery.
Prostate cancer removal is considered one of the most precise procedures in urological surgery and is different from the usual prostatectomy done to treat benign prostate enlargement. Traditionally, this procedure has been performed by opening the abdomen and later by laparoscopic surgery. However, the difficulty of this procedure and its frequent complications have hindered its widespread use, except among specialists in this field.